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Bilateral Development Cooperation

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Bangladesh

Common approach among donors with sharp criticism of corruption

The Danish focus on good governance and anti-corruption looks as though it may be starting to bear fruit in Bangladesh. This is due not least to the fact that the donors from the EU together with other donors such as the USA, Australia and Canada have begun speaking with one voice and focusing on the political and development-related impacts of poor governance and corruption.

For the fourth consecutive year, Bangladesh has been proclaimed to be the world’s most corrupt country by Transparency International. The sustained Danish criticism of corruption has been a contributing factor to the Bangladesh government’s decision in 2004 to establish an anti-corruption commission, whose task is not only to handle specific complaints against public employees but also to help prevent new instances of corruption. The task will now be to get the commission to operate independently and efficiently.

Lack of law and order constitutes an increasingly serious problem. Assassination attempts against the British High Commissioner and the leader of the country’s largest opposition party are two clear examples. In order to stamp out the rising lawlessness, the government has established special units that have been charged with responsibility for increasing security. In general, the units have broad popular backing, despite having a reputation for being extremely brutal and for taking the law into their own hands.

Bangladesh is regarded as a moderate Muslim country. Nonetheless, fundamentalist groups lurk under the surface, which has partly led to the persecution of moderate Muslims, Hindus and other minority groups. Denmark and the other EU Member States have made concerted efforts to persuade the Bangladesh government to address these tendencies.

In December 2004, the government presented its first major poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP). The strategy’s most important objective is to implement good governance and improve the delivery of public services to the poor. Today, approximately 60 per cent of the population live under the poverty line, and the aim is to halve this figure by 2015. This requires strong economic growth of around 7 per cent each year. The average growth in recent years has been around 5 per cent.

The PRSP strongly emphasises the importance of the private sector in lifting the country out of poverty. There is a fear of the consequences for Bangladesh’s textile industry when the Multi-Fibre Agreement, which regulates trade with textiles under the WTO, expires in 2005. There are signs, however, that the negative impact will be reduced by new major investments in textile factories and the fact that many foreign companies are waking up to the opportunities to move operations to Bangladesh, for example in the IT sector and within the pharmaceutical industry.

During the last three years, the Danish Private Sector Development (PSD) Programme has successfully launched more than 40 projects, involving the establishment of partnerships and in many cases also genuine joint ventures between Danish and Bangladeshi companies.

Denmark is currently phasing out its support to the transport sector and instead focusing stronger attention on building the road network in the country as an important part of the support to the agricultural sector. Similarly, focus is being diverted from water and sanitation in the provincial towns to strengthening efforts in the rural areas.

Flag of Bangladesh

Map of Bangladesh

Location of Bangladesh in Southeast Asia

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 144,000 km2
   Population 138.1 million
   Annual population growth 1.7%
   GNP per capita USD 400
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 6.7
   Life expectancy 62
     
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 43.98 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Agriculture
   Transport
   Water and sanitation

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 144 69 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 71.2 86.6 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 71 75 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Benin

2004 was a fairly peaceful year politically

In 2004, the government concentrated its efforts on implementing the poverty reduction strategy that was launched in 2003. In addition, the long-awaited civil legislation that was designed partly to improve women’s rights, including their right to inherit, was passed. Quite unique in an African context was the fact that 52 judges and other officials were convicted of corruption.

2004 also saw a number of economic challenges. Nigeria maintained its decision from 2003 to close its border to transit trade from Benin’s large port city, Cotonou, the cotton harvest was only 80 per cent of what was expected, the world market price fell, and the long-awaited privatisation of the cotton sector failed to materialise. In general, economic growth is expected to be around 3 per cent against a target of 7 per cent in the poverty reduction strategy.

In order to avoid a large national budget deficit, the government cut public expenditure by 8 per cent and also implemented a plan designed to improve the competitiveness of the Cotonou Port.

2004 was a special year for Danish development assistance to Benin. After the Board’s visit to the country in 2003, a new country strategy was adopted that based itself around Benin’s own poverty reduction strategy. The first concrete initiatives took the form of six new programmes in August 2004, to which would be channelled a total of USD 120.25 million over a five-year period. The largest proportion of this funding would go to a renewed water and sanitation sector programme. In the next four years, 1,900 tapping sites will be established, which will provide clean drinking water to approximately 500,000 people, while latrines will be installed in 800 schools.

In 2004, two-thirds of all new tapping sites in Benin were dug and installed with the help of Danish funding. This far exceeded expectations and gave 150,000 people access to clean drinking water. In the second phase of the agricultural sector programme, farmers will be made less dependent on cotton, while the popular micro-credits will continue to be given to poor farmers. USD 18.37 million has been allocated to a budget support programme, USD 14.20 million of which will go directly to the national budget. The rest will go towards monitoring the results of the country’s poverty reduction strategy and improving the national auditing system. In 2004, USD 4.76 million was disbursed in direct budget support. The budget support programme focuses on anti-corruption, decentralisation, and women and children’s rights, with the aim of promoting human rights and good governance. A total of USD 11.69 million has been allocated to this programme.

As a new step, the education sector has been selected to be a recipient of Danish development assistance. The pilot phase began with a total budget of USD 4.84 million and the finalised sector programme is expected to be adopted in 2005. The support will go to the provision of basic and primary education up to grade 9 and the professional development of teachers. In the area of school canteens, women will be responsible for the cooking, using local products instead of the centrally distributed food products. The possibility of establishing formalised apprenticeship training will be examined and an attempt will be made to integrate 200 disabled children into ordinary schools.

Lastly, USD 6.51 million has been allocated to the draining of, for example, urban areas around Abomey, which lie under water for much of the year. The drainage channels will be dug using local labour, thus ensuring that the wages benefit the local population. In the road sector, approximately 120 km of secondary road was built in 2004. This has given 212,000 workdays and a total payroll of over USD 668,000 to the local population – which for many people has meant a doubling of the local daily wage. One in three employed workers was female.

Flag of Benin

Map of Benin

Location of Benin in Africa

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 113,000 km2
   Population 6.7 million
   Annual population growth 2.6%
   GNP per capita USD 440
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 33.6
   Life expectancy 53
     
   Danish bilateral assistance, 2004* USD 32.26 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Agriculture
   Transport
   Water and sanitation
   Education

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 185 154 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 44.8 71.3 (1999)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 60 68 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Bhutan

Possibility of phasing out Danish development assistance

Sustainability, progress, trust, minimal corruption, and on the road to democracy - these are the main ingredients of the general development and the Danish development assistance to Bhutan in 2004. A new constitution that should give Bhutan more democracy and lessen the power of the king landed on the king’s desk in 2004. During 2005, he will personally travel around the country’s 20 districts and present the draft constitution.

Denmark’s development assistance to Bhutan, as well as that of other donors, follows the country’s nine-year plan, which is also the country’s poverty reduction strategy. The largest donor, India, will phase out its development assistance in step with the country’s purchase of more and more electricity, which is Bhutan’s largest source of income. New hydroelectric power plants are on the way, and the price of deliveries has recently risen by one-third per power unit.

Bhutan’s economic, social and political development is so positive that it also opens up the possibility of phasing out the Danish programme cooperation over a ten-year period. Bhutan is a small, stable country. Its budgeting is transparent, and the country has a good auditing system in place – corresponding to the National Audit Office of Denmark.

The Danish development assistance to Bhutan goes primarily to supporting the country’s own budgets and is administered by the government. Within the education and health sector, 75 per cent of support is channelled directly to the ministries. Naturally this makes it difficult to measure the impact of the support, but as Denmark is one of the largest donors within both sectors, the results can be seen via the general development in the sectors.

In 2004, Denmark’s support to the health sector was characterised by a wish to sustain the considerable progress that has been achieved via support given, for example, to the renovation, establishment and running of health clinics in rural areas.

An important problem yet to be solved is the high level of maternal mortality, which is caused by the fact that around 75 per cent of births, especially in rural areas, take place outside health clinics and hospitals. The health sector programme has also focused on educating the local population, enhancing access to clean drinking water and improving the sewerage system. This part of the development assistance has meant that around 85 per cent of the country’s inhabitants now have access to clean drinking water.

After planned operations by the Bhutan army in 2004, the Indian separatist movements were evicted from their camps in southern Bhutan, and increased patrolling now makes the area relatively safe to work and travel in. As a consequence, the Danish urban development project in the area has been initiated.

Although Bhutan is not free of corruption, it is a minimal problem compared to the neighbouring countries. Quite simply, the country has no tradition of corruption. Besides, the public employees are paid a reasonable salary, which means they do not need a supplementary income to make ends meet.

In 2004, a gigantic telephone project costing around EUR 16 million was put out to tender. The contract was won by a Danish firm with Mixed Credit support and the project is due to be implemented in 2007. The phone connections will mean, for example, that farmers who make a living from growing and selling seed potato can now keep track of the prices and sell their produce at the most opportune moment.

Flag of Bhutan

Map of Bhutan

Location of Bhutan in Southeast Asia

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 47,000 km2
   Population 0.87 million
   Annual population growth 2.7%
   GNP per capita USD 660
   Foreign assistance  
   per capita USD 86.3
   Life expectancy 63
   
   Danish bilateral assistance, 2004* USD 18.40 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Health
   Environment and natural resource management
   Water and sanitation
   Education

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 166 85 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 62 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Bolivia

Reforms contribute to increasing revenues from customs and taxation

The development assistance to Bolivia in 2004 was characterised by the continuing unrest in the country. There are many social conflicts in the country, in which trade unions and farmers’ organisations play an active role. Although a new president and a new government have arrived on the scene, there are deep rifts between the government and Congress, for which elections were held in 2002. The next elections for Congress are due to be held in 2007. The continued unrest meant that the activity level of the Danish-supported programmes had to be reduced. Nevertheless, despite the government’s lack of parliamentary strength and backing, progress was made in several sectors in 2004.

A new poverty reduction strategy is currently being formulated that at present aligns itself closely with the Millennium Development Goals. However, focus has been diverted from the social sectors to the country’s economic development, with the aim of generating growth and production among the poor and securing a more equitable distribution of the country’s wealth.

Denmark has acted by giving effective support to improving the financial situation of the poor population, for example via support to poor families in highland areas in the form of enhanced milk production and increased knowledge of technology and marketing.

With Denmark leading the way, donors are putting pressure on the government to fight corruption. An important element in this regard is the reform of the customs and taxation system. With the help of Danish support, there are now well-functioning institutions in place that are able to collect progressive income taxes as an important supplement to customs and excise duties.

Bolivia has many natural resources – in particular, natural gas. At a referendum in July 2004, 70 per cent of the population voted in favour of the government’s proposal for how the country could benefit more from the drilling and extraction of natural gas. The population also endorsed the proposal to raise tax for the multinational companies.

One of the core problems in Bolivia is the large gap between rich and poor. A total of 65 per cent of people live under the poverty line, whilst there are very affluent areas in La Paz.

Denmark supports a land reform that will ensure the indigenous people’s ownership of their land. The support goes, for example, to the Land Commission, which is a body ensuring that all stakeholder groups are included in the work to build a better distribution policy, and also to courses on conflict resolution, equipping the partners with tools for negotiation and dialogue rather than conflict. In addition, the country’s ombudsman, the president’s anti-corruption bureau and the country’s largest human rights organisations are recipients of Danish support.

Although the level of activity was lower than expected, Danish assistance produced positive results in 2004. Within the agricultural sector, where Denmark also chairs donor meetings, 3,000 families living in the dry highland received support towards irrigation of their fields.

In 2004, 470 teachers attended courses that prepared them to undertake effective bilingual instruction – in Spanish and in one of the indigenous people’s own languages. Thanks to Danish efforts, environment is now a subject taught on the curriculum in 325 schools. In the field of gender equality, Denmark has, for example, supported the training of those women who have been elected to the municipal councils, with the aim of enabling them to succeed in a traditionally male-dominated forum.

Flag of Bolivia

Map of Bolivia

Location of Bolivia in South America

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 1,099,000 km2
   Population 9.0 million
   Annual population growth 2.2%
   GNP per capita USD 890
   Foreign assistance  
   per capita USD 77.3
   Life expectancy 64
   
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 28.48 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these
   Agriculture
   Environment and natural management
   Indigenous people and participation
   Education

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 120 66 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 90.8 94.2 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 72 85 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Burkina Faso

Almost half a million people gained access to clean drinking water

In 2004, only a little rain fell in Burkina Faso and the harvest was less than the previous year. At the same time, the northern region was plagued by grasshoppers, compelling many inhabitants to travel south with their cattle. These conditions, combined with a drop in the world market price for cotton and rising oil prices, led to a dramatic fall in economic growth, from 8 per cent in 2003 to 4.8 per cent in 2004. In partnership with the other donors, Denmark attempted to alleviate the worst of the repercussions, and Burkina Faso’s government received high praise from the IMF for its handling of the economic crisis.

The armed conflict on the Ivory Coast also affects Burkina Faso, which has close ethnic, cultural and economic ties to the neighbouring country. The conflict means also that the approximately three million Burkinans working on the Ivory Coast send less money home than before.

In 2004, the Danish assistance was restructured to a greater degree of programme orientation, with emphasis on national institutions assuming responsibility for implementing the activities. This happens in step with the establishment of new phases within the water, agriculture and education sectors. New areas such as decentralisation, budget support and HIV/AIDS have been added to the agenda.

Burkina Faso’s poverty reduction strategy was revised and adopted in October 2004. A small central structure was also adopted, in which the state delegates responsibility for a large number of tasks and decisions to the provinces and municipalities. Denmark assists the Ministry of the Interior in undertaking this major task and also supports investments at provincial, municipal and village level. Finally, Denmark supports the development of civil society through training popularly elected representatives and promoting the participation of women in politics.

Denmark has for a long time implemented activities in the water and sanitation sector. During the first programme phase, which ended in 2004, 375,000 people in rural areas and 100,000 people in 27 provincial towns were secured access to clean drinking water as well as educated about hygiene. At the same time, there has been a general improvement of the water supply and sanitation conditions.

In 2004, 237 pumps were put into operation against an anticipated 170, and the National Water Council was set up, with responsibility for implementing the government’s Integrated Water Resource Management programme. In addition, the energy sector achieved solid results: four towns now have supply systems, which the members themselves own and run, and three more are on the way. The power plants in two towns went into operation, and a further 8,000 subscribers on the outskirts of Ouagadougou will have access to electricity in 2005.

Agriculture is the linchpin of Burkina Faso’s economy. In 2004, the Danish agricultural sector programme achieved a number of results: Water dikes were built in fields covering a total area of 1,235 hectares, which enhances production. In rural areas, 224 farmers were trained in how to set up and establish savings banks. And a new opportunity may be opening for Burkina Faso: a successfully implemented Francophonie (summit between the French-speaking countries), which was attended by around 5,000 participants, 55 delegations and 35 heads of state led by France’s president, provides hope that Ouagadougou can strengthen its position as the centre for international conferences in West Africa.

Flag of Burkina Faso

Map of Burkina Faso

Location of Burkina Faso in Africa

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 274,000 km2
   Population 12.1 million
   Annual population growth 2.3%
   GNP per capita USD 300
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 40
   Life expectancy 43
   
   Danish bilateral assistance, 2004* USD 32.84 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Agriculture
   Water and sanitation
   Energy
   Education

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 210 207 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 26.2 35.0 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 39 51 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Egypt

Danish development assistance to be phased out due to the lack of reforms

Egypt has a number of structural problems, and the need for political and economic reforms is considerable. A strong population growth rate and the need to create around one million new jobs each year are two of the challenges facing the country. The government is postponing drastic yet necessary reforms, such as privatisation, redundancies in the public sector and a freeze on subsidies to a number of basic products, out of fear that this will cause new social unrest. The lack of momentum in the reform process is the reason why the Danish development assistance will be phased out.

Egypt’s poverty reduction strategy and the accompanying action plan have been drawn up in collaboration with the UNDP and the World Bank, and are currently undergoing a consultation process. The fight against corruption is moving in the right direction, and senior officials and politicians have received prison sentences of up to 15 years.

The new government in Egypt is endeavouring to decentralise administration and place more decisions with the local communities. This applies, for example, to environmental administration, where Denmark supports a process to build environment bureaus and train staff in what could be compared to five Danish counties and 11 Danish municipalities. In dialogue with the citizens, environmental action plans are being formulated, and financial support is being given to carry out environmental improvements, for example, to water supply, sanitation and refuse collection systems. Information campaigns have been planned, and staff are being trained in how to monitor the behaviour of polluting companies. A considerable number of employees have received training in, for example, laboratory management, strategic planning and secretarial functions.

At the same time, Denmark sponsors courses in the use of cleaner technology within the private sector and also gives financial support to environmental improvements in private companies. This has led to greater compliance with environmental legislation.

In regard to the Danish water supply project in Aswan, a number of positive results were achieved in 2004: well over 1,000 people have received training; administration and maintenance have been streamlined; and unauthorised users have been identified. This provides the water supply company with a far better financial base and helps secure the future of the company, which supplies water to around 100,000 households in the extremely poor, southern part of Egypt. The water supply company has been privatised with great success. Users and administration have agreed on a water payment system whereby the poor pay less than the wealthier members of society.

The Private Sector Development (PSD) Programme is well-established in Egypt. In 2004, 15 new partnerships were established within areas such as foodstuffs, agricultural produce, textiles and metal. Egyptian and Danish companies are delighted with the programme, and there is a strong demand for Danish business partners willing to enter into long-term commercially sustainable business partnerships in Egypt. Also projects implemented with support from Mixed Credits have been successful.

In 2004, the Danish-Egyptian Dialogue Institute was established as part of the Danish Wider Middle East Initiative. A board was appointed, comprising three members from Egypt and three from Denmark as well as a director. The objective is to strengthen the dialogue with the reformist groups in the Arab world. The Institute will become an independent unit within the Al Ahram Foundation and operate in close cooperation with the Al Ahram Centre for Political and Strategic Studies, which is one of the most well-reputed think tanks in the Arab world.

Flag of Egypt

Map of Egypt

Location of Egypt in Africa

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 1,001,000 km2
   Population 68.1 million
   Annual population growth 2.0%
   GNP per capita USD 1,360
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 19.4
   Life expectancy 69
   
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 21.68 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Environment and natural resource management

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 104 39 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 83.7 90.3 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 94 98 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Ghana

Large proportion of Danish development assistance goes to the national budget

In December 2004, free and democratic parliamentary and presidential elections were held. Very positively, the government did not expend large sums of money on being re-elected. Despite the elections, the government maintained the country’s economic stability, which is the first time this has happened since the reintroduction of democracy in 1992. At the elections in December, the number of women in parliament rose from 19 to 25 out of a total of 230 members. There is increasing attention surrounding women’s participation also in public life, but there is a still a long way to go.

Efforts to improve the business climate proved successful in 2004, with falling interest as well as falling inflation. Ghana was granted debt relief under HIPC II, and a number of donors will thereby continue to cancel more than USD 3 billion of debt. The debt relief entails that Ghana’s debt is reduced to a sustainable level that the country is able to repay.

Harmonisation of assistance is high on the Danish agenda, and considerable energy has been invested into giving impetus to this development in 2004. One of the results is a common approach among donors – both multilateral, such as the World Bank, and bilateral, such as Denmark – when it comes to laying down conditions for budget support to Ghana’s national budget. Together with the government, 12 goals have been set out, which must be achieved before the donors release the promised budget support.

Denmark continues to award a considerable portion of its development assistance as budget support. Within the health sector, around 75 per cent of the Danish assistance channelled through budget support is used for implementing the national health sector strategy. In 2004, efforts were made, for example, to increase access to healt-care services through national health insurance and exemption schemes, such as exemption from payment for help during childbirth.

Currently, the indicators show a mixed picture of the development in the health field.

Unfortunately, it looks as though infant mortality is rising. The number of HIV incidences, on the other hand, appear to be stagnating among the younger population groups. In the fight against HIV/AIDS, several of the donors are working closely together and now have plans to establish a joint fund to streamline and enhance the interventions in this area.

The harmonisation of donor activities is also taking place in connection with the revised poverty reduction strategy. The work began in the second half of 2004, and the revised strategy must be finalised by the middle of 2005. The strategy will be closely aligned with the Millennium Development Goals, although it is unrealistic to believe that Ghana can reach the goals. The government cannot on its own secure sufficient funding for the improvements, and sufficient funding is not forthcoming from foreign donors.

The business sector is not just a goal for Danish development assistance. In Ghana’s own poverty reduction strategy, the development of the private sector also plays an important role. The Private Sector Development (PSD) Programme continues to be implemented with reasonable success, and the Embassy is working on securing synergies between the PSD Programme and the Danish business sector support.

For a long time, Denmark has worked to promote good governance and fight corruption. In 2004, Ghana for the first time received Danish support to its programme for good governance. The official stance is that corruption must be fought, although this stance has yet to gain a foothold in the population or at all levels in the public system.

Flag of Ghana

Map of Ghana

Location of Ghana in Africa

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 239,000 km2
   Population 20.4 million
   Annual population growth 2.6 %
   GNP per capita USD 320
   Foreign assistance  
   per capita USD 32.8
   Life expectancy 55
     
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 59.72 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Transport
   Water and sanitation
   Health
   Business development

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 125 95 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 52.4 60.2 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 54 79 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Kenya

Danish efforts strengthen the building of democracy

After years of lukewarm development cooperation under Daniel Moi’s misrule, Kenya is now on the way back to being a “normal” programme country. The first sector programmes in the health and water sectors were finalised in 2004. These will replace the projects that in the last few years have been run without central government involvement but instead through local administrations or NGOs.

A new country strategy and several sector programmes within agriculture, environment, good governance and the business sector are in the pipeline. All programmes have been drawn up in line with Kenya’s own poverty reduction strategy.

Turning a country’s administrative and political system away from corruption, poor governance and human rights violations is a long process. When the new “rainbow” government led by President Kibaki took over power in December 2002, it promised a new constitution within 100 days. No draft constitution has yet been adopted, although there is hope of a referendum in 2005, when the fight against corruption will also face a crucial test.

Kenya is moving in the right direction in several areas. Economic growth has been weak, equalling approximately 2.4 per cent in 2004. The Kenyan economy exhibits several bright spots. The export of flowers and vegetables to Europe in particular has risen sharply, and the export of tea is also rising. The most positive trend, however, is probably that tourists are beginning to return.

One of Kenya’s major problems is finding the capital to improve the population’s living conditions – especially for the 56 per cent of people living under the poverty line. Kenya has, however, the advantage of a relatively functioning tax system, which collects VAT, corporate and personal taxes.

In 2003-2004, Denmark donated special support to the democratisation process in Kenya – a “democracy dividend”. In total, USD 3.00 million went to purchasing 24,036 dispensary kits with medicine and equipment for district hospitals and health clinics. People’s awareness of their own rights is a prerequisite for a well-functioning democracy. In 2004, 15,000 Kenyans were educated about their rights in a Danish-supported human rights project. As part of the Danish project for strengthening local communities, the inhabitants of 145 villages received training in how to lay plans for their future.

The private sector is to be the engine driving Kenya’s development. To help promote this development, Danish funding was used to enable approximately 2,000 young people to undertake a vocational and technical education programme in 2004. Another important Danish initiative is the PSD programme, which has had a successful launch. In 2004, five new partnerships were established, and 16 are on the drawing board.

2004 was also the year when support to Somalian refugees in Kenya was put firmly on the agenda. As a neighbouring country, Kenya is vulnerable to the situation in the two troubled areas, Somalia and Southern Sudan. With respect to Southern Sudan, Kenya has played the role of mediator, brokering a peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the rebels in the south. Kenya has also played an important role in pushing the peace process forward in Somalia.

Denmark has also entered into agreements to support the capacity of the Kenyan authorities to tackle the refugee problem.

Flag of Kenya

Map of Kenya

Location of Kenya in Africa

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 580,000 km2
   Population 31.9 million
   Annual population growth 1.8 %
   GNP per capita USD 400
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 12.5
   Life expectancy 45
   
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 26.16 mio.

* calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Agriculture
   Water and sanitation
   Health

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 97 123 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 74.3 69.9 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 45 62 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Mozambique

Support to independent courts strengthens rule of law

In 2004, economic growth reached 8 per cent, which is a growth rate that can enable

Mozambique to achieve many of the Millennium Development Goals. A halving of poverty is within reach. However, Mozambique’s starting point was and continues to be weak.

2004 was characterised by parliamentary and presidential elections, which took place at the beginning of December. During the year, politicians and officials diverted focus from implementing reforms to seeking re-election.

Although democracy and an independent civil service are not established concepts in

Mozambique, the elections were held peacefully. The election results were recognised by the international observers present, who nevertheless also drew attention to a number of irregularities. However, despite complaints from the opposition, Renamo, such criticisms were not sufficient to alter the outcome of the elections, which saw Frelimo win 50 per cent more votes than Renamo. The abnormally low voter turnout of below 40 per cent sent a clear message to the government and the politicians that the people wanted reforms.

One of the most important areas for Danish development assistance is public sector reform. A well-functioning public sector that is free of corruption is a prerequisite for Mozambique’s ability to achieve its own goals for poverty reduction, better health and better education. One of the tasks is to ensure that the population can follow the trail of the money from the national budget to schools, clinics, road building, etc. In this way, it becomes more difficult for people to siphon off money for themselves and their family. Another task is to create an efficient tax system, so that Mozambique in the longer term is able to pay for the country’s development itself.

The development is moving in the right direction. Where revenues from corporate taxes and personal taxes amounted to 9.6 per cent of GDP in 1996, this figure has now risen to 14.3 per cent. The target for 2006 is 15 per cent.

At the same time, Denmark donates support towards the establishment of independent courts, so that the population have better opportunities for having disputes and violations of their rights settled. A democracy requires that men and women enjoy equal rights and that interest groups can freely organise themselves.

During 2004, Denmark contributed, among other things, to the updating of 30 per cent of all teachers in the provinces of Cabo Delgado, Tete and Zambezia in new teaching materials and methods, to the building of 150 new classrooms in the same provinces, to the connection of 1,376 households to the power grid, and to the approval of environmental action plans for three major towns.

For Denmark, 2004 was a year of preparation. As a result, a new health sector programme, a new environmental programme and a new agriculture sector programme are ready for implementation in 2005. Denmark’s country strategy expired in 2006 and a new one is being formulated, based around Mozambique’s own poverty reduction strategy.

Flag of Mozambique

Map of Mozambique

Location of Mozambique in Africa

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 802,000 km2
   Population 18.8 million
   Annual population growth 1.9 %
   GNP per capita USD 210
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 111.6
   Life expectancy 41
   
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 67.60 mio.

* calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Agriculture Education Energy Health

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 235 158 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 44.7 59.7 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 42 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Nepal

Considerable development assistance to troubled area

A step on the road to achieving greater stability in Nepal was taken at the beginning of 2004. After heavy pressure from the democratic groups in Nepal backed up by the donors, the royally appointed prime minister resigned his office in May 2004. The government showed a determination to improve the human rights situation in the country and declared the fight against poverty as its most important objective. Despite this, the human rights situation in Nepal steadily worsened throughout 2004. On 1 February 2004, the king dismissed the government and personally assumed power in the country, which has further exacerbated the critical security situation.

One of Nepal’s most fundamental problems is that a majority of the population are excluded from influence. This applies to low castes, ethnic minorities and women. This exclusion of a predominant population group from the political decision-making processes has up until now ensured the Maoist rebels a certain level of tacit support among the population.

It is this pattern that Danish development assistance partly focuses on breaking, although this is very difficult to achieve in the present situation. It is thus crucial for the continuation of the Danish educational assistance that the programme reaches the poor in the various regions and that the administration is transparent, so that everyone can follow the trail of the money. This entails, for example, each school publishing its budget, thus allowing everyone to see how much money the school has received and how it is being spent. At the same time, local democracy is strengthened through the school board, which, as a new step, comprises teachers, pupils, parents and other representatives from the local community.

In step with the worsening conflict and the state’s inability and lack of resolve to work in the rural districts, the assistance within the forestry programme is provided increasingly through local NGOs that support local forestry groups. This means that the activities are anchored in a local partnership, which will not disappear even though the assistance may have to stop for a period of time due to the conflict between the army and the Maoists.

The assistance given to the development of alternative energy sources, such as solar and water energy, is also based around local management and the building up of local private businesses that can produce a large part of the necessary materials. Ownership of these projects is strong, with the assistance going hand in hand with personal investment of capital. The army, however, causes problems when it refuses to permit, for example, the delivery of water pipes to the small hydroelectric power stations on the grounds that pipes can be used to make bombs. On the other hand, development can only take place with the Maoists’ “acceptance”. However, following the king’s take-over of power, Denmark has decided to put the planning of the next phase of the activities within the forestry and energy sectors on hold. In addition, the disbursement of support payments to a project designed to enhance the tax administration has been suspended.

Despite the conflict, the Danish Private Sector Development (PSD) Programme has had a successful launch, for example within the textile design and honey production industries. Tourism is one of Nepal’s major sources of income, but the last few years of conflict have led to a serious decline. At the moment, the country survives to a large degree on transfers from abroad, partly from foreign aid and partly from money sent back by emigrant workers that have travelled to Asia and the Middle East as the conflict has worsened.

Flag of Nepal

Map of Nepal

Location of Nepal in Southeast Asia

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 147,000 km2
   Population 24.7 million
   Annual population growth 2.2 %
   GNP per capita USD 240
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 15.1
   Life expectancy 60
   
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 34.25 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Environment and natural resource management
   Education
   Energy

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 145 82 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 81.2 70.5 (2000)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 69 84 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Nicaragua

Forests now being replanted with Danish assistance

The wish to coordinate and include donors actively in the planning process characterises the Nicaraguan government’s approach to poverty reduction. When the donors meet to coordinate their assistance, the government sits at the top of the table.

A successful example of the constructive cooperation is evidenced in the education sector. In 2004, the sector was designated a target for Danish assistance, and in this connection the Ministry of Education drew up a prioritised plan for how the government wishes the assistance to be deployed. The plan has increased the interest of Denmark and other donors in providing support, with the result that more funding than expected has been injected into the sector.

The good relations between Denmark and Nicaragua were reinforced during the Danish prime minister’s visit to Nicaragua in 2003 and further developed with a reciprocal visit to Denmark by President Enrique Bolaños Geyer in 2004. One outcome of the visit is a Danish promise to look into the possibility of building a 95 km road between Nueva Guinea and Bluefields. Today, Bluefields is only accessible by air or, for example, by sailing 70 km along a canal. The feasibility studies have been initiated along with environmental studies.

And it is precisely in the environment sector that Denmark is the leading donor. This sector has for many years been neglected due to a wish to concentrate on economic growth. Denmark gives support to establishing local environment administrations and an environment fund, in which representatives from the Ministry of the Environment as well as civil society sit on the board. The fund has supported 160 small projects, focusing on, for example, forest replanting and pollution abatement in coffee production and small industrial firms.

In 2004, municipal elections were held in Nicaragua. These saw strong gains for the opposition party, the Sandinists, which in the previous election period had held several offices of mayor. The government is finding it difficult to honour its intentions to pursue good governance and anti-corruption, having only 6-9 of the parliament’s 92 seats.

2004 was a difficult year economically and politically. GDP per capita fell, and there were insufficient investments in the country to meet the need for new jobs in a population that increases by 140,000 citizens each year.

The new phase of the agricultural sector programme has had a successful launch, which, for example, has seen the continuation of 1,739 micro loans to farmers and small craftsmen. Cooperation between the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture has resulted in a banned list of 12 dangerous chemicals.

In the transport sector, the second phase was approved in November 2004, and work will continue on building roads in the three poor regions in northern Nicaragua, where 102 km of gravel road were built in 2004. In addition, a series of quay installations and small bridges have been built, and 8 km of highway between the capital and El Rama has been repaired and improved.

The Nicaraguan population is still plagued by the landmines laid throughout the country during the many years of civil war. In 2004, a total of 8,700 landmines were cleared in the area where Denmark finances activities, and the population is now able to move around safely and cultivate this territory.

Flag of Nicaragua

Map of Nicaragua

Location of Nicaragua in Central America

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 130,000 km2
   Population 5.5 million
   Annual population growth 2.6 %
   GNP per capita USD 730
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 969
   Life expectancy 69
   
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 37.70 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Agriculture
   Transport
   Environment and natural resource management
   Education

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 68 38 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 72.2 81.9 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 69 81 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Tanzania

Success for Danish support directed towards developing the private sector

In 2004, economic growth reached around 6 per cent, which is a small improvement in relation to 2003.

In full harmony with the view of Denmark and other donors, the government’s own poverty reduction strategy identifies the private sector as an important factor for development. The Danish-financed Business Sector Development Programme ensures, among other things, that a maritime and commercial court swiftly settles disputes, and that small businesses and traders are able to secure micro loans under the programme. Strengthening of the private sector takes place also within agriculture, health and road building. The Danish Private Sector Development (PSD) Programme is developing very positively, with increased interest shown by both Danish and Tanzanian companies.

Donor cooperation as well as cooperation between donors and the Tanzanian government is functioning satisfactorily. Many programmes are being implemented in which donor assistance is gathered in joint funds, results are examined collectively, and a joint calendar showing the planned study visits, evaluations, etc. of the approximately 45 donors is constantly kept up to date on the website http://www.tzdac.or.tz.

Around 20 per cent of the Danish assistance is awarded as direct budget support to the national budget.

The work to improve the human rights situation in Tanzania is moving only slowly ahead, and the donor community with Denmark at the front is pressing for anti-corruption to be once more put high on the agenda.

In 2004, Denmark also worked to promote the political dialogue between the government and the opposition in Zanzibar, where the political atmosphere is tense.

A well-skilled labour force is a prerequisite for Tanzania’s ability to itself take over responsibility for the country’s development and for reaching the goals set out in the country’s own poverty reduction strategy. However, a skilled labour force on its own is far from enough. One of the reasons is the large number of deaths as a result of AIDS or AIDS-related diseases. Denmark contributes actively to combating HIV/AIDS, partly through support to the Kagera region, which is worst hit.

In Tanzania, there is no shortage of good intentions to promote development within the environmental sphere, but the lack of skilled employees is one of the reasons why adopted legislation is only slowly being implemented in practice. HIV/AIDS and the resulting shortage of staff workers in the districts also contributes to delaying reforms designed to decentralise power from the capital to the rural areas. The Ministry of Health, hospitals and health clinics are also understaffed, and a large proportion of the beds are taken up by AIDS patients.

In 2003, a Danish programme was launched in relation to the over 400,000 refugees residing in north-western Tanzania along the border to Burundi. The support is two-sided, going partly to the refugees in the camps and partly to the local inhabitants in the area. By supporting both inside and outside, Denmark contributes to dampening conflicts between refugees and the local population. In the camps, the refugees receive instruction in simple trades, so that they have something to make a living from when they return home.

Flag of Tanzania

Map of Tanzania

Location of Tanzania in Africa

Key Figures  
   Area 945,000 km2
   Population 35.9 million
   Annual population growth 2.3 %
   GNP per capita USD 290
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 35
   Life expectancy 47
   
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 95.51 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Agriculture
   Transport
   Health
   Business development

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 163 165 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 49.6 54.4 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 38 73 (2002)

Kilde: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Uganda

Clean drinking water for a million people

In 2004, Uganda’s government gave high priority to finding a settlement to the 18-year armed conflict in the northern part of the country. The conflict has been costly, both economically and in terms of human life, and has led to the displacement of 1.5 million people, who live in camps under miserable conditions.

Peace is a prerequisite for being able to stamp out poverty, both in northern Uganda and in the country as a whole. Denmark participated in the peace efforts through engaging in close dialogue with authorities and other donors, and through supporting efforts to promote democracy and human rights.

A new region of origin programme for Sudanese refugees was launched in December 2004. The support will amount to approximately USD 12.5 million over a three-year period and will be channelled through local and international NGOs.

Refugees, however, are not just to be found in the north. A total of 15,000-20,000 people, who fled across the border from the conflict in Congo at the end of 2004, contribute to further hampering Uganda’s development.

The measures taken to promote human rights, democracy and good governance as well as women and children’s rights have been strengthened. In June, Denmark and Uganda reached an agreement on Danish support to the fight against corruption, including support to the ombudsman, who investigates allegations of corruption in the public sector.

Positive results have been achieved through the Danish development support, support which aligns fully with Uganda’s own poverty reduction strategy.

In the water sector programme, new wells have been drilled and old wells renovated. This has given a further nine million people access to clean drinking water. In addition, latrines have been installed in private households, primary schools and health clinics.

Within the health sector programme, and partly with the help of Danish support, the districts have improved their provision of health-care services to citizens. Children under five years of age have been vaccinated against diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus; health institutions have been equipped with medicine to fight malaria, fungus infections and measles; and the number of outpatients at district clinics and centres has increased. Nursing schools in northern Uganda have been renovated, and support has been given to providing health care services for nomads in the north-eastern part of the country.

Denmark strengthens Uganda’s national AIDS control programme through, for example, capacity building in the central medicine supply system, which is responsible for providing ARV drugs to HIV-infected persons. In addition, long-term support is provided to the nationwide organisation, TASO, which supports people who are HIV-positive.

The development of the private sector is assigned higher priority in the new agricultural sector programme (e.g. credit schemes for small enterprising farmers) and through joint ventures in the PSD programme. Within trade, Uganda’s participation in the WTO negotiations is supported.

Flag of Uganda

Map of Uganda

Location of Uganda in Africa

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 241,000 km2
   Population 25.3 million
   Annual population growth 2.7 %
   GNP per capita USD 250
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 25.9
   Life expectancy 42
   
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 63.34 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Agriculture
   Transport
   Water and sanitation Health

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 160 140 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 52.7
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 44 56 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Vietnam

Danish support to a flourishing private business sector

With economic growth of over 7 per cent in 2004, Vietnam is a country enjoying strong economic development – albeit from a low starting point. Consequently, Vietnam is a highly pertinent place to use Danida’s business-support instruments, and indeed the whole palette of instruments is being used. These include the Private Sector Development (PSD) Programme, Mixed Credits, business scholarships, public-private partnerships, consultant trust funds in international organisations, and investment guarantees. Similarly, the Industrialisation Fund for the Developing Countries (IFU) is also working successfully in Vietnam.

The Danish business sector programme aims to improve the climate for the private sector in the country. In particular, the programme helps to foster the development of Vietnam’s small and medium-sized enterprises, partly by ensuring that the administrative treatment of their applications and licences corresponds to that accorded to large enterprises. The programme also devotes support to enhancing the working environment in enterprises.

The benefits of the economic growth are not equally shared, and it is especially the minorities that remain poor and the trend towards a widening gap continues. In response, the government has initiated a special programme to help the minority groups. The Danish support in this area goes primarily to Dak-Lak province, where Denmark supports not only measures to build up the local administration, but also efforts to secure access to clean drinking water and sanitation.

Throughout the year, Denmark has supported the privatisation of 12 governmental organisations in connection with the ongoing economic reform. Within the environmental programme, over 800 hectares of trees have been planted. Within the legal sphere, more than 2,000 prosecution and court employees have undergone training – ranging from university degree programmes to short courses – in order to ensure an improved, independent legal sector.

In 2004, eight ferries were built for the Mekong delta, with the aim of enabling the population to reach markets, health clinics and school. A total of 150,000 people were given access to clean drinking water and sanitation in 2004. New phases within water and sanitation as well as the fisheries sector are under preparation, where emphasis is placed on ensuring that development takes place within the Vietnameses’s own system and not as parallel systems. The aim here is to promote Vietnamese ownership of the development process.

In several areas, Denmark plays an important role among the donors. In the fisheries sector, Denmark is by far the largest donor. Similarly, Denmark is an important donor in the water sector and also in the legal sector, where Denmark hosts the monthly coordination meetings.

Denmark has contributed USD 12.53 million in support to Vietnam’s poverty reduction strategy. This support is disbursed through the World Bank, which coordinates that part of the foreign assistance. The goals for Vietnam’s development align closely with the Millennium Development Goals, but are more ambitious. Nevertheless, the country’s prospects of achieving the goals look good.

Corruption is a major problem, and Denmark and other donors are pressing hard to reverse this situation. In 2004, the Vietnamese authorities declared their readiness to play an important role in the fight against corruption. This is partly to be achieved through the press, which is currently under government control.

Flag of Vietnam

Map of Vietnam

Location of Vietnam in Southeast Asia

FACTS

Key Figures  
   Area 332,000 km2
   Population 81.3 million
   Annual population growth 1.1 %
   GNP per capita USD 480
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 15.9
   Life expectancy 70
     
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 73.45 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Agriculture
   Water and sanitation
   Fisheries
   Business development

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 53 23 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 90.5 94.0 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 72 73 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Zambia

Several Millennium Development Goals met partly through Danish support

In 2004, Zambia gained better control of the economy. Inflation was almost halved from 30 per cent in 2003, with economic growth reaching 5 per cent. Despite needing a growth rate of at least 8 per cent to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, it is positive that the country now for the fifth consecutive year has experienced economic growth.

Combined with the government’s tighter control of expenditure and stricter budgetary control in 2004, this provides hope that Zambia may already be able to secure debt relief under the HIPC initiative in the first quarter of 2005.

An absolutely key priority of the Danish assistance in 2004 was the fight against corruption, which was partly reflected in the support given to establishing the public prosecutor’s office and local audit institutions. Zambia is in the middle of a major corruption case, in which the former president is among those who stand accused. Denmark contributes economic support in order to ensure that the extensive police investigations are carried out in a professional manner, for example in connection with inspections of foreign bank accounts. The hope is that the former president will be prosecuted and that the considerable sums of money alleged to have been taken illegally from the Zambian state will be repaid.

Recently, Zambia has shown an increased determination to improve the living conditions of the poor. From 2003 to 2004, the government tripled its expenditure on anti-poverty measures, which were implemented primarily within health and education. In several areas, Zambia has exceeded its goals. For example, 85 per cent of newborn babies have been vaccinated compared to the expected 80 per cent, and the mortality of children under five years of age has fallen to 165 per 1,000 compared to the anticipated 180.

Unfortunately, it has proved difficult to reduce the level of maternal mortality, which is high at approximately 700 out of 100,000 births. This could be due to the fact that many mothers have HIV/AIDS and therefore are too weak to survive childbirth. Denmark supports the efforts to combat HIV/AIDS, partly through assistance to AIDS prevention measures among young people in schools and youth clubs as well as through health clinics.

With the support of Denmark among others, Zambia almost achieved its goals within education: 93 per cent of children started in school compared to an expected 95 per cent, and 72 per cent completed grade 7 against a target of 80 per cent. However, the figures say nothing about the quality of the education provided. In 2004, the infrastructure was strengthened with small roads and bridges, which allows new rural areas to be cultivated and crops driven to market.

The efforts in the regions of origin on behalf of refugees continued in 2004. A total of 29,000 refugees returned to Angola, and more of the 200,000 Angolans will follow. Many of the returnees are given Danish support towards integrating themselves into Zambian society.

Denmark has contributed USD 3.34 million towards enhancing management of natural resources. Another USD 3.34 million from the environmental assistance went to an environmentally friendly refuse disposal site in Lusaka.

Over the last year, the cooperation among donors has further improved. Denmark takes a leading role in promoting a joint country strategy with common rules of procedure and joint evaluations. The aim is for each donor to concentrate its efforts on fewer sectors and ease cooperation between the Zambian authorities and the many different foreign donors.

Flag of Zambia

Map of Zambia

Location of Zambia in Africa

Key Figures  
   Area 753,000 km2
   Population 10.4 million
   Annual population growth 1.5 %
   GNP per capita USD 380
   Foreign assistance per capita USD 62.5
   Life expectancy 37
   
   Danish bilateral assistance 2004* USD 45.10 mio.

   * calculated according to expenditure

Danish assistance to these sectors
   Transport
   Water and sanitation
   Health                
   Education

Poverty indicators

  1990 Most recent figures
Mortality of children under 5, per 1000 180 182 (2003)
Percentage of children attending primary school 79.1 66.0 (2001)
Percentage of population with access to safe drinking water 50 55 (2002)

Source: http://www.milleniumindicators.un.org

Transitional assistance and regional assistance, 2004

1: Transitional assistance

1: Transitional assistance

2: Transitional assistance to the Western Balkans

3: Regional assistance

 




This page forms part of the publication 'Danida’s Annual Report 2004' as chapter 10 of 18

Publication may be found at the address http://www.netpublikationer.dk/um/6051/index.htm

 

 
 
 
 
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