2 Intervention Mapping
Within development research, the most important areas during the period of the Evaluation have been agriculture and food, health, environment and climate, and economic growth and employment. The total amount granted for the activities carried out within the scope of this Evaluation is approximately DKK 600 million (see Table 2), or 42% of the budget allocated under the Finance Act. This chapter describes and summarises the key characteristics of the five modalities under evaluation.
The purpose of funding channel §06.35.01.10 is to support the use of Danish competencies in development research. Specific modalities over the period covered by the present Evaluation have included support to research networks and to research centres. From 2011 this support was replaced by a new modality, Building Stronger Universities in Developing Countries (BSU), comprising four thematic platforms, of which two, Environment and Climate and Growth and Employment, were covered by the Evaluation.
The FFU guides funding through §06.35.01.11, the purpose of which is to support the development of new knowledge for the benefit of developing countries and to maintain and expand the capacity of these countries with respect to producing research. The FFU assesses which applications are worthy of support and forwards their recommendation for the formal consent of The Danish Council for Strategic Research (DCSR). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs makes the final decision on which applications to support. Since 2008 these funds have been split between North-driven and South-driven research, prior to this all research was North-driven.
Table 2 Overview of Fund allocation for five modalities under evaluation for Agriculture and NRM research and Research Networks, 2006-2011
|Modality and Budget code
|1. Centres (§06.35.01.10)
|2. Networks (§06.35.01.10)
|3. BSU* (§06.35.01.10)
|FFU North-driven (Agriculture & NRM)
|FFU South-driven (Agriculture & NRM)
|4. FFU (§06.35.01.11) Total
|5. Minor Studies** (§06.35.01.15)
* Environment-Climate and Employment-Growth Platforms only.
** Funds for agriculture and natural resource management related studies.
Together §06.35.01.10 and §06.35.01.11 constitute the overall frame for support to research on development related topics and capacity building.
Funding through §06.35.01.15 is for minor studies of a fact-finding nature, implemented with the main objective of strengthening the quality of Danish development cooperation. The utilisation of this fund under agricultural and natural resource management has been very limited during the evaluation period.
Allocation of funding and projects for FFU in Tanzania, Vietnam and Burkina Faso
In this section there is a brief analysis of FFU project activity from 2006 to 2011 in Tanzania, Vietnam and Burkina Faso. It should be noted that the funding indicated is the total valueof the project, and is not an indication of the funding that was received and managed by the institutes directly. This varied according to the type of project, for example with small project PhD awards 100% of funding was allocated to expenditure in Denmark and with other projects between 25 and 60% for funding activities in southern partner countries.
In Tanzania both North- and South-driven projects have been supported between 2006 and 2011, and by way of a case study and illustration, the resources and project activities have been mapped and are summarised in Table 3 which shows the number of projects, resources and degrees/publications by institute and project modality, over the period.
Table 3 Summary of Project type and resource allocation for FFU projects(North- and South-driven) in Tanzania 2006-2011
* n/a = not available from the documentation to which the Evaluation had access.
** NPGRC = National Plant Genetic Resources Centre, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute.
*** UDSM = University of Dar es Salaam.
During the period the total funding to FFU projects in Tanzania has been DKK 136.7 million of which DKK 104.6 million (77%) went to projects where SUA was a partner institution. Four of the projects in the data sheets had no Tanzanian organisation specified.
The distribution of FFU North- and South-driven projects in Vietnam is shown in Table 4, with the nominal numbers of PhD and MSc awards and the numbers of projects publications in peer-reviewed journals. The total value of projects over the period was DKK 104.9 million. It should be noted that several projects have a multi-institutional base and the funding allocation between the different institutes is not known and is indicative only. At least 16 institutes were involved in Danida supported activities between 2006 and 2011, with the largest nominal funding going to Can Tho University. The spread of institutes and projects is much wider than for either of the two African countries analysed.
Table 4 Summarised data for FFU North- and South-driven, agricultural and NRM research projects in Vietnam, 2006-2011
|Can Tho University
|Hanoi Agricultural University
|Hanoi Medical University
of Mining and Geology
|Hanoi University of Sciences
|Ministry of Health
|National Institute of Animal Science
of Veterinary Research
|Research Institute for Aquaculture
|Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
of Agricultural Sciences
* There are several projects which involve more than one Vietnamese institute. Where possible from available documentation, resources, awards and publications have been assigned to what is believed to be the lead institute.
** The absolute number of projects is shown here, many of the projects involve multiple institutes in Vietnam.
For Burkina Faso, with fewer projects (a total of 13 for which data are available), the total value of North-driven projects is DKK 69.6 million over the period. The largest share (DKK 35.0 million) is going to six projects in the Institute of Environment and Agricultural Research (INERA) and the Research Institute of Applied Science and Technology (IRSAT), part of the National Centre for Scientific and Technological Research (CNRST) complex of institutes. These data are summarised in Table 5.
Table 5 Summarised data for FFU North-driven, agricultural and NRM research projects in Burkina Faso, 2006-2011
||Value DKK million
|AMMA Burkina Faso
|Centre national de semence forestière
|University of Bobo
|University of Ouagadougou
Country distribution of FFU projects
The distribution of the 88 FFU projects under the Evaluation by country shows the bulk of the projects in Africa. A number were multi-country within the same continent (20) and in six cases covered Asia, South America and Africa.
The seven main project locations are shown in Figure 1, the category Other covers countries with five or fewer projects, as shown in Table 6.
Figure 1 Distribution of FFU projects in Agriculture and NRM, by country for North- and South-driven support for 2006-2011 (n=88)
Table 6 Distribution of Projects for Countries with five or fewer projects
||As a % of total projects for each country
||Number of projects in Country|
|Bolivia, Cambodia, Nepal, Zambia
|Benin, Bhutan, Senegal, Thailand
|Bangladesh, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Namibia, Peru, Philippines
(Note: The percentage of Total projects for each country means that 3.5% of projects were in Mozambique and 3.5% in Nicaragua, 2.8% in Bolivia, 2.8% in Cambodia, and so on. The total is 30.1% of projects in the category Other in Figure 1.)
2.2 FFU Projects (North-driven)
The main share of Danish funding for support to agriculture and NRM research in the period from 2006 to 2011 was to directly-funded research cooperation projects (FFU projects) submitted by researchers attached to Danish research institutions.
Grants were awarded to strategic research cooperation projects/activities which were expected to strengthen research capacity and generate new knowledge relevant to the needs and strategies of developing countries and to Denmark’s development cooperation. It includes, or has included, larger strategic programmes (including ENRECA), smaller projects (initiative grants, post-doctoral studies and PhD awards) and Travel Grants. Grants varied in size from DKK 150,000 to DKK 11 million with nearly two thirds of the FFU projects approved for funding in this period being located in Africa (50/87).
Table 7 Distribution and value of all agriculture and NRMNorth-driven Projects, 2006-2011
||Value Million DKK
|Larger Strategic Projects
|Smaller Projects, PhD
|Larger Strategic Projects ENRECA
|Smaller Projects, Postdoc
|Smaller Projects, Initiatives
Within this modality project grants have, to a large extent, reflected Danish development policy priorities. The screening of project applications and the selection of projects for funding has been based on three equally weighted criteria: relevance, effect and quality of the proposed development research. FFU has endorsed the applications to the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Individual capacity development has been integrated into the research projects, mainly through funding of PhD students. Thematically, the FFU projects show a great diversity although many of the themes are interrelated, just as several of the research projects are inter- and multi-disciplinary in the sense that they approach development problems in an integrated way and work simultaneously to solve problems. Key thematic areas include:
- Agriculture farming, crops
- Climate change
- Drinking water/water resources
- Food security.
Numerically, the largest share of projects approved by FFU in the period falls within the categories of Larger Strategic and Smaller Projects (PhD), although by funding the Larger Strategic and ENRECA Projects have received the main share (Table 7).
During the evaluation period, Copenhagen University (KU) was the dominant lead institution of FFU projects within agriculture and natural resource management. KU, mainly the Faculty of Life Sciences (KU-LIFE) accounted for two thirds of the projects, Aarhus University for 15%, of the projects, Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS) for 7% and Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) for 6%.
2.3 FFU Pilot Research Cooperation Programme (South-driven)
In addition to FFU projects a Pilot Research Cooperation Programme (PRCP) was launched in 2008, with the aim of strengthening research capacity in the three countries based on South-driven research cooperation. Separate initiatives under this modality have historically been referred to as FFU Pilot Projects; however the terminology now being used by Danida is South-driven research projects, which is the terminology used in this report.
The programme has been launched in three countries, Tanzania, Vietnam and Ghana. In Tanzania and Vietnam it was launched in 2008 and Ghana was added in 2011; the programme is still active.
Researchers within the three countries engaged in the modality define the research themes to reflect their national and institutional priorities and select the researchers in Denmark with whom they wished to collaborate. The aim is that research themes will be demand-driven and coherent with national priorities of participating countries, enhancing ownership and relevance.
In operational terms, Southern researchers draw up research concept notes to which Danish researchers are invited to submit an expression of interest. The Southern researcher then selects their Danish partner from amongst those who have responded and the final research project proposal is developed jointly with the selected Danish partner. In other respects, projects funded under the pilot programme must meet the same requirements as other Danish research cooperation projects.
A total of 10 South-driven research projects in agriculture and NRM were launched within the evaluation period, five in Tanzania and five in Vietnam. Thematically these projects are focused on climate change, markets (trade and value chain), agriculture, husbandry and land use changes.
2.4 Building Stronger Universities
Since 2011, Danida has provided funding through a new modality, Building Stronger Universities(BSU), where the aim is to develop cooperation between an association of Danish universities, Universities in Denmark, and Southern partners. The overall goal of the BSU initiative is to strengthen universities and research institutions in developing countries through the formation of networks of excellence, by developing and strengthening long-term partnerships between universities in developing countries and in Denmark, strengthening:
- Research capacity
- Research-based education
- Dissemination of research-based information.
The BSU programme is fundamentally concerned with how Danish academic institutions can contribute to improving the operations and performance within universities in Southern partner countries. The focus is on the academic quality of their research output, training courses, and how they contribute knowledge and skills to meet the national development challenges in their respective countries.
The BSU modality allocates funds on a biennial basis for four thematic platforms: Growth and Employment; Climate and Environment; Health; Stability, Democracy and Rights.
It is the intention that the BSU initiative supplements Danish support provided to individual researchers by addressing the needs for capacity development at the level of research institutions. This has been in the form of establishing PhD schools, upgrading PhD training, improved research management and environment and improved research dissemination.
An outline of the two BSU platforms covered by this Evaluation is presented below. The emphasis has been on its set-up and preliminary experiences.
Environment and climate platform
The development objective of the BSU Platform on Environment and Climate (BSUEC) is to contribute to informed and improved sustainable natural resource management and livelihoods considering the needs for environmental protection, clean tech solutions, adaptation and mitigation in the face of climate change – through research capacity building in Ghana and Tanzania.
Five focus areas have been identified as relevant to BSUEC:
- Sustainable land use and management;
- Sustainable water use and management;
- Energy and waste in rural and urban linkages;
- Climate change;
- Sustainable innovations and planning.
The partners of BSUEC in its initial phase are University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana (KNUST), University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (UDSM), and Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania (SUA). Participating Danish universities are Aarhus University (AU), (KU), Aalborg University (AAU), Technical University of Denmark (DTU), University of Southern Denmark (SDU), Roskilde University (RUC) and Copenhagen Business School (CBS). Two Danish sector research institutes are also linked to the platform: Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and (GEUS). Platform Working Groups (PWGs) have been established at some specific African universities.
During the inception phase, several processes were undertaken to develop activity plans, platform governance structure and the detailed budget.
During the first two-year implementation phase, from 2011 to 2013, BSUEC is focusing on establishing the capacity to train PhD students and further foster research networks and collaboration between Danish researchers and the participating African Universities. Activities are being implemented in five work packages.
Growth and employment platform
The development objective of the BSU Platform on Growth and Employment (BSUGE) is to enhance capacity of the African institutions to promote sustainable growth and employment through research, education and dissemination of research findings.
The partners of BSUGE in its initial phase are UG, KNUST, UDSM, SUA and seven Danish universities: KU, AU, SDU, RUC, (AAU), DTU and CBS. Platform working groups have been established at UG, KNUST, UDSM and SUA.
During the first two-year implementation phase, from 2011 to 2013, BSUGE has been focusing on PhD education, PhD scholarships, Research collaboration, Dissemination and Platform Governance which are each designated as a specific work package.
2.5 Support for two KU-LIFE Centres
History and origins of the KU-LIFE centres
The Danida-funded centres covered by the Evaluation are the Danish Seed Health Centre and the Danida Forest Seed Centre Danish.
Established in 1981, the Danish Forest Seed Centre (DFSC) evolved from the Danish FAO Forest Seed Centre. The establishment was in line with Danish priorities in development assistance in relation to forest management and forest conservation and DFSC activities were closely linked to Danida sector support programmes.
DFSC provided research and technical support to developing countries in the fields of procurement and handling of seed of tropical and subtropical tree species, basic tree improvement and conservation of forest gene resources and national centres were established in many of the programme countries, including Tanzania and Burkina Faso.
From 2004 the DFSC was integrated into the newly established Danish Centre for Forest Landscape and Planning under the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University.
In 2004 the Danish Seed Health Centre for Developing Countries (DSHC) was created by merging the Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology (DGISP) with development activities of the Department of Plant Biology at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, in order to address the losses to farmers in developing countries caused by seed-borne and seed-transmitted diseases, as well as the danger involved in the movement of disease organisms with seeds within a country or across international boundaries. The overall goal was to increase research capacity and capability of national research institutions in the project countries and of developing close working relationships between seed producers, seed testing laboratories, research institutes and extension services.
In 2007 the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University was integrated into the University of Copenhagen and became the Faculty of Life Sciences (KU-LIFE).
In 2012 the KU-LIFE was separated into two parts. The veterinary part merged with the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Faculty of Health Sciences into a new Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. The remaining part of LIFE – under which DSHC and DFSC belong – merged a new larger faculty, entitled Faculty of Science.
Funding for two KU-LIFE centres
The Danida-funded activities at the two KU-LIFE centres covered by the Evaluation have been guided by Performance Contracts (2008 to 2010 and 2011 to 2012) and have taken place primarily, but not exclusively, in Danida partner countries.
The centres have combined many disciplines, worked across sectors and collaborated with universities in Denmark and abroad, with international institutions, and with institutions, networks and relevant sector ministries in a number of countries in Africa and Asia.
In the Performance Contract from 2008 to 2010 the centre activities were grouped under the following objectives:
- Generating new knowledge and developing new methodologies, approaches and models (Applied Research)
- Building capacity for research, use of research and interventions (Capacity Building)
- Promotion of the use of research based knowledge for development (Knowledge Management).
2.6 Research Networks
Since the mid-1990s, Danida has funded a number of research networks. The members of these networks have been researchers and aid practitioners in Denmark and developing countries. The aim of the networks has been to enhance the utilisation of development-oriented research in development assistance, focusing on the Danish resource base within research for development. This aim has been accomplished by increasing the dialogue and interaction between the research community and aid practitioners in Denmark and abroad.
In April 2006 Danida circulated a discussion paper presenting some thoughts on the future of the research networks. The discussion paper was particularly focused on possibilities for improvement by merging the networks. Following this, the Network for Agricultural Research for Development (NETARD), the Research Network for Environment and Development (ReNED) and the Research Network for Governance, Economic Policy and Public Administration (GEPPA) decided to merge and became the Danish Development Research Network (DDRN). The Danish Research Network for International Health, Danish Water Forum (DWF) and the Poultry Network continued as separate entities although Danida’s support for the Poultry Network ended in 2007.
The main function of the networks has been to help communicate research findings, as well as making the capacity of the Danish resource base known to potential users within development assistance, although the focus of activities has differed across the networks.
The Evaluation has considered the DWF and DDRN as the key networks receiving support from 2006 to 2011 since the Poultry Network was winding down at the start of this period. DDRN comprised the three main networks which merged and DWF also received funding and was active during the period (see below).
Danish Water Forum
Since 2004 the Danish Water Forum has administered the Knowledge Network for Water and Developmentwith funding from Danida. The Knowledge Network was established at the end of 2003 to enhance the exchange of knowledge in the water sector, create synergy and support the technical quality in Danish development aid, in particular in relation to Danida-funded water sector programmes as well as in sector programmes where water was an issue, including agriculture, environment, and health.
The first phase, from 2004 to 2006, focused on establishment of the network, knowledge sharing in Denmark and extraction of international knowledge for the Danish resource base. These activities were also of relevance for the second phase of support from 2007 to 2009 but with enhanced focus on facilitation of research cooperation between researchers from Denmark and partner countries. Since 2007 the network has aimed at fostering collaboration and knowledge sharing between the Danish researchers and practitioners, and between researchers and practitioners from North and South. This has been in the form of enhanced communication, joint projects, working groups and networks, and facilitation of the integration of research-based knowledge in the water sector in development assistance in Denmark.
Danish Development Research Network
The DDRN’s overall objective was to increase the contribution and inclusion of research and knowledge in the design and implementation of development assistance in response to partner countries’ needs. More specifically to contribute to the dissemination and exchange of information between development programmes and the research community within agriculture, environment and governanceand to foster an engaged and committed network of members through enhanced community building, interaction and collaboration, and through establishment of the necessary information channels, mechanisms and tools.
2.7 Minor Studies
The Danish support to development research includes an allocation for minor research-based special studies. A study in this context is considered as a smaller research-based activity carried out by Danish or foreign researchers or consultants, typically linked to current development policy issues. The overall responsibility for the account and the authority to approve applications for study grants lies with the head of UFT.
The research studies are normally prepared to elucidate special concerns raised by embassies and departments with a view to strengthening the quality of Danish development cooperation.
 According to the Finance Act of 2012.
 Projects at the following institutes: National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, National Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health, National Institute of Nutrition.
 Projects at the following Institutes: Southern Fruit Research Institute (SOFRI), Soils and Fertilizers Institute (SFRI), Cuu Long Rice Research Institute (CLRRI), Agricultural Genetics Institute.
 In addition there were 20 projects located in Asia, eight in Latin America and nine which were multi-country/global.
 The Growth and Employment and Climate and Environment Platforms are thematically the most relevant within the scope of this Evaluation.
 There is a PWG at UDSM and one at SUA each with five participants.
 This network is not covered by the Evaluation.
 DDRN Intermediate Objectives. See Producing knowledge for development together – lessons from the Danish Development Research Network. DDRN, July 2011.
This page forms part of the publication 'Evaluation of Danida supported Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management 2006-2011' as chapter 5 of 16
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