1.1 Evaluation setting and focus
This Evaluation of the protracted refugee situation in Tanzania is part of a broader evaluation initiative of four evaluations undertaken by UNHCR. In 2008, the High Commissioner (HC) launched a Special Initiative on Protracted Refugee Situations (PRS) to promote durable solutions and improvements in the life of refugees in these situations. The initiative aims to address the appalling global refugee situation, described by UNHCR as “unacceptably high. According to the latest available statistics, some 5.2 million of the world’s refugees have been living in exile for more than five years”[¹]. The initiative was also motivated “by the fact that long-term refugee situations have a variety of seriously prejudicial consequences. Many refugees caught up in these situations live in remote and insecure areas, with limited opportunities to move around, or to have access to land, the labour market and educational opportunities. It is unsurprising that, as one result, protracted refugee situations are often characterized by personal trauma, social tension, sexual violence and negative survival strategies”[²].
The HC’s initiative aimed to capitalise on emerging new opportunities for solutions. Set to this background the initiative focuses on five situations in different parts of the world where refugees have been living in exile for long periods of time. At the launch in 2008, a commitment to “review the overall progress of the PRS Initiative and report on its findings and recommendations in 2010” was also made[³].
The four evaluations have common aims, i.e. to assess how effectively UNHCR has exercised its mandate in finding durable solutions for refugees, to determine whether the search for solutions has been consistent with UNHCR’s protection mandate, to examine the catalytic role UNHCR has played in engaging other players in the resolution of the refugee situation, to assess the progress UNHCR has made in improving the quality of life for the refugees and to identify examples of good practice, innovative approaches and lessons learned.
1.2 Background and objective of the Tanzania PRS Evaluation
The protracted refugee situation in Tanzania concerns the Burundian refugees, who arrived in 1972 and the Evaluation covers the implementation of the Tanzania Comprehensive Solutions Strategy (TANCOSS) for this group of refugees. The strategy includes, voluntary repatriation and reintegration in Burundi (Pillar 1), naturalisation i.e. granting of Tanzanian citizenship (Pillar 2) and full integration, i.e. relocation and local integration of the newly naturalised citizens (Pillar 3).
The Terms of Reference for the Evaluation of the Tanzania PRS build on the generic Terms of Reference introduced above. In addition the focus is on the catalytic role UNHCR has played by engaging through the UN Delivering as One (DaO) process – to which Tanzania is a pilot country, the relevance and appropriateness of the strategies to refugees themselves and to other relevant stakeholders such as host communities, the local and national government and finally the link between short- and medium-term activities and objectives of repatriation and integration strategies on one hand, and longer term development goals on the other. The Tanzania Terms of Reference have extensive requirements on the methodology to be applied and explicitly include selected OECDDAC evaluation criteria. The generic Terms of Reference however resemble more of a review of progress, as indeed seems also to be the ambition stated at the launch of the PRS initiative in 2008.
1.3 Structure of the report
The report has been organized as follows: The evaluation methodology is presented in Chapter 2, a snapshot of the historical context and an overview of refugee policies and asylum climate in Tanzania is described in Chapter 3, followed by an assessment of the strategic framework, its motivation and the catalytic role of UNHCR in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 is an assessment of the implementation of the strategy and the role of UNHCR in implementation including an assessment of the internal coordination and staffing in UNHCR. Chapter 6 discusses the role of partnerships and the potential role of UN Delivering as One (DaO). Conclusions are presented in Chapter 7 by assessing the TANCOSS initiative as well as the role of UNHCR against selected OECD-DAC evaluation criteria of particular relevance to this Evaluation. The chapter also offers the Evaluation’s proposal of lessons learned, which could have wider applicability.
 Executive Committee of the High Commissioner’s Programme: Standing Committee, 42nd meeting: 2 nd June 2008, p 2, (paragraph 10).
 Ibid p 3, (paragraph 12).
 Ibid p 8, (paragraph 31).
 The ToR for the Evaluation are included as Annex 1.
 Executive Committee of the High Commissioner’s Programme: Standing Committee, 42nd meeting: 2 nd June 2008, p 82, (paragraph 31)
This page forms part of the publication 'Evaluation of the protracted refugee situation (PRS) for Burundians in Tanzania' as chapter 3 of 15
Version 1.0. 07-02-2011
Publication may be found at the address http://www.netpublikationer.dk/um/10940/index.htm