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1 Introduction

1.1 Purpose and objectives

As elaborated the Terms of Reference (cf. Annex E), the purpose of this evaluation is two-fold: to enhance the impact of the Africa Programme for Peace (APP) and to learn lessons for future capacity-building efforts of multilateral institutions.

The evaluation has three main objectives:

  • To document and assess the main outcomes of the APP in its lifetime, from 2004 to 2017 (Phases I-III);
  • To analyse Danish contributions to African peace, security, and governance initiatives in terms of the value added to processes of conflict prevention and resolution; and
  • To determine focused and targeted recommendations for enhancing the impact of the fourth phase of the APP.

The report explores these objectives by evaluating the APP through combining a programme theory model with the OECD criteria (relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, sustainability and coherence) and by following a rigorous evaluation method. See Annex C for the Evaluation Matrix.

1.2 Scope

Institutional scope

The evaluation focuses on the institutions supported by the APP, including the African Union (AU), its member states, the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS), the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and four additional organisations, namely the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) in Accra, the West Africa Network for Peacebuilding (WANEP) also in Accra, the Institute for Peace and Security Studies (IPSS) at Addis Ababa University, and the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) based in South Africa.

The evaluation takes into account the institutional context provided by the Danish government in terms of supporting peace, security, and governance in Africa. Thus, the evaluation specifically examines the coherence between the APP and the Peace and Stabilisation Fund (PSF), and to a lesser extent the linkages to Denmark’s bilateral and humanitarian programmes. The evaluation also assesses the relevance of the APP in light of the initiatives funded by other development partners.

Geographic scope

By supporting the AU, the APP covers in principle the entire African continent. Because of the focus on ECOWAS and IGAD, however, the geographical scope of this evaluation is limited to the Sahel and the Horn of Africa (HoA). These priority regions for Denmark’s development cooperation have continuously been destabilised by conflict.

Thematic scope

The APP seeks to enhance peace, security, and governance by supporting the capacity of regional organisations, their member states and stakeholders. APP support comprises multiple forms of capacity-building and activities ranging from support for political decision-making and diplomatic actions to support for non-military components of peace operations. This evaluation covers the full range of activities supported through the three phases.

Temporal scope

This evaluation covers the entire span of the APP’s lifetime, including APP Phase I (2004-2009), Phase II (2010-2013) and Phase III (2014-2017). In addition, the evaluation takes account of the start-up phase of the APP (2002-2004) as part of its historical assessment of the programme, as well as Phase IV (2018-2021) of the APP as part of its forward-looking efforts to determine focused and targeted recommendations for future programming.

1.3 Evaluation team

Ecorys Netherlands and the Clingendael Institute have jointly engaged the evaluation team, which includes Peter W. Brorsen, Team Leader; Mariska van Beijnum, Peace & Security Specialist[2]; Erwin van Veen, Quality Control; and Thijs Viertelhauzen, Project Manager. Fransje Molenaar and Rens Twijnstra supported the team with their expertise on respectively the Sahel and the Horn of Africa. In addition, Jacob Lindenbauer and Willemijn Tiekstra provided valuable analytical support throughout the process of conducting the evaluation.

The evaluation was commissioned by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ (MFA) Department for Evaluation (EVAL) in October 2017 and has been carried out from December 2017 to August 2018.

1.4 Evaluation Reference Group

The Danida Evaluation Department established an Evaluation Reference Group (ERG) which provided advisory support and inputs to the draft inception report and the draft evaluation report with a view to ensure that the evaluation is based on factual knowledge about the engagement and how it has been implemented. It has also supported the implementation of the evaluation and has promoted the dissemination of the evaluation conclusions and recommendations.

1.5 Report format

The report for the Evaluation of the Africa Programme for Peace (APP) 2004-2017 comprises 12 chapters: this introduction defines the scope of the evaluation and refers to the evaluation criteria.[3] Chapter 2 sets out the Danish policy context for development cooperation generally, then specifically focuses on peace and security. Chapter 3 provides an introductory overview of the APP, presenting the Programme’s objectives, operational context and main partner organisations. Chapter 4 subsequently provides a detailed overview of the APP’s programme level focus, set-up and expenditures by phase. Chapters 5 through 10 discuss findings according to evaluation criteria, with one chapter for each criterion. Chapter 11 presents the conclusions of the evaluation, and Chapter 12 lists the evaluation’s recommendations and introduces a model for measuring institutional performance.

[2] During the inception phase, Ms Mariska van Beijnum replaced Mr Luc van de Goor as Peace & Security Specialist.

[3] The detailed evaluation method was presented in the Inception Report, and the evaluation criteria and framework are found in Annexes B and C.


This page forms part of the publication "Evaluation of the Africa Programme for Peace 2004-2017 – November 2018" as chapter 1 of 12.
Version no. 1.0, 2018-12-13
Publication may be found at the address http://www.netpublikationer.dk/um/evaluation_africa_programme_for_peace_2004-2017/index.html